Lesson Plan- Day 2 Earth Science Component (Task 7)

Single Subject Lesson Design

Earth’s Geologic History and Energy Extraction Through Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)
Earth Science 9th & 10th Grade
Length of Lesson: 1- 2hr period,
2nd half of 2nd Semester
2nd class in 5 class unit.

3A. STUDENT INFORMATION: English Language Learners

1.) Elena is a 15 year old 10th grader.  She is identified as an ELL with a CELDT level of 4 whose primary language is Spanish.  She comes from a middle class family and has 2 older brothers, one of which also attends RBV, and a younger sister.  Her parents are second generation immigrants and her family speaks a mixture of Spanish and English at home. Her parents are active on the schools PTSA.  Elena does not read or write in Spanish.  Her performance in school is good if not excellent.  Her reading, writing and math skills are all at grade level.  She does, however, excel in Art and Music classes and is a member of the school choir.  She reports that her favorite spare time activities are dancing and singing.  Elena is vivacious and outgoing, prefers to work in small groups as opposed to whole-class or individual activities.  She easily gravitates to a leadership role in small group activities but does have a tendency to take the group off task.

2.) Ibram is 16 years old in the 11th grade.  His CELDT level is 3 and his primary language is Arabic.  His family immigrated fairly recently and he has been in the California school system for 3 years.  He comes from an upper middle class family and is the youngest of three children.  His oldest sibling, a brother, did not emigrate with his family and his older sister attends a local community college.  His family speaks Arabic almost exclusively at home, primarily because, while his father is fluent in English, his mother speaks no English at all.  Ibram enjoys sports, particularly soccer, but does not play on a school team.  He gets very good grades; all A's but one B on his last report.  His parents have high expectations for his schoolwork but offer little concrete support.  Ibram is shy and tends to isolate.  He reports that because of his language and cultural differences he does not feel that he fits in well in school.

3.) Maria is a 14 year old girl in the 9th grade and is identified as an ELL with a CELDT level of 3 and a primary language of Spanish.  Her father is a first generation immigrant and her mother second generation. They speak mostly Spanish at home.  She has one older sibling who also attends RBV.  Her family is middle class to lower middle class.  Her parents own and operate a small convenience/grocery store where Maria works after school and on weekends.  Maria's CELDT score is much higher for reading than for writing and she reads extensively, preferring romantic and fantasy fiction.  She enjoys sports and loves to play soccer but has little time to do so.  Maria if quiet and shy but friendly.  She works well in small groups but seldom takes on a leadership role, even when encouraged to do so.
3B. STUDENT INFORMATION: Students w/ Special Needs
1.) Alex is a 16-year-old boy in the eleventh grade. He had difficulty with the development of his early literacy skills, including the acquisition of sound/symbol relationships and word identification, demonstrated in both his reading and writing. In the second grade, Alex was identified as a student with specific learning disabilities. Since then, Alex has received special education support primarily in a resource room for language arts, while he is included in the general education curriculum. He is able to independently read text at a ninth grade level and continues to struggle with decoding words. Alex also has asthma for which he takes daily medication and occasionally needs to use an inhaler. He is a self-isolating person who does not readily join into whole-class conversations or contribute to group learning situations. His tendency is to sit alone at lunch and to be by himself during transitional time. There is no in-class support for this student.

2.) Ross is a 15 year-old boy in the tenth grade, identified as a student with ADHD in the fourth grade.  He is the only child in an upper middle class family.  Both parents are professional college graduates.  They are members of the PTSA but find little time to participate actively.  Ross is a highly visual learner and his school performance as measured by grades and test scores is uneven.  Ross enjoys sports and plays on the school baseball team.  He also enjoys playing his guitar.  Ross prefers to work in small groups in class but is sometimes disruptive.     

     A. Enduring Understanding

The extraction of fossil fuels from the Earth can be quite difficult and costly. Hydraulic fracturing uses pressure to physically separate fossil fuels from the surrounding shale.  This process comes with inherent risks, but we can mitigate these risks through understanding the mechanical forces involved.

     B. Essential Questions
                1. Can we truly mitigate the risks involved in hydraulic fracturing?
               2. Do the risks involved outweigh the benefits?  

     C. Reason for Instructional Strategies and Student Activities
            Students will be able to understand the potential for ground water contamination and methods which are incorporated to mitigate the possibility.
California Content Standards Grades Nine through Twelve-Earth Sciences
7b. Students know the global carbon cycle: the different physical and chemical forms of carbon in the atmosphere, oceans, biomass, fossil fuels, and the movement of carbon among these reservoirs.

Writing Strategies & Applications
Grade 9-12 Writing Strategies Cluster 2, I:  Narrate a sequence of events and communicate their significance to the audience.
A:  Structure ideas and arguments in a given context by giving supporting and relevant examples.
    After the lab exercise, students will be able to explain how fluids can be utilized to transmit force to surrounding surfaces, and how these fluids can flow into adjacent groundwater reservoirs. 


     -Language Objective
     Through their textbook readings, and participation in the laboratory exercise, students will be able to articulate their observations in a short summary writing.
     A. Diagnostic/Entry Level
       Students will be asked by the teacher about their current understandings of how fluids move through soils and within the hydrologic system.

     B. Formative-Progress Monitoring
       After the lecture and video, the teacher will observe the students working within their laboratory groups to see if the concepts previously explained are being applied to the lab exercise. Students will explain their hypothesis and their findings throughout the exercise. Students will make notes of their observations for inclusion in their summary writing assigment.

     C. Summative
       After the activity, the students will return to their seats and the teacher will have them explain their findings in writing.

1.)     Content/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Elena/Ibram/Maria: During the lecture, the teacher will use visuals/graphics, and present key vocabulary in primary languages of the students. The teacher will incorporate a video to assist with the understanding of key concepts being taught.
2.)     Process/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Elena/Maria: The teacher will pair students to assist them with particular vocabulary and definitions. All students will work in pairs/small groups, however consideration will be made for English Language Learners to be paired with someone who might be able to provide additional explanation if required.
Ibram: Will be paired with a student who will be able to convey information in simple terms. Several students have shown this ability, and Ibram is currently paired with one of those students.
           3.)  Product/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or    Interest
 Elena/Ibram/Maria: Students will be allowed additional time      to complete the summative writing assignment.  If needed, the students can complete the assignment at home and bring it in the next class session.
1.)     Content/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Alex: The teacher will ensure presentations have visual/auditory component to maximize retention. Additional attention will be given to vocabulary during the beginning of class.
Ross: The teacher will incorporate Ross into discussions to keep him focused on the material. 
2.)     Process/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
-Students will be paired with other students that will be able to assist them as required.
Alex: Will be paired with one of the academically stronger students to assist with reading/ formation of coherent ideas. 
Ross: Will be paired with a student and in a location that will provide the least amount of distractions, and allow maximum focus on the tasks.
     3.)  Product/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Alex: will be allowed to take the writing assignment home for additional time, and less distracting atmosphere.
Ross: No differentiation required.

A. Anticipatory Set/Into
         NOTE: This lesson will be utilized on the second day of the ITU. The anticipatory set will be co-taught by both teachers incorporating the complementary model. The remainder of the class session will be divided into the respective Earth Science/Physics classes.

The teachers will provide a general overview of the material to be covered by the readings, video and the laboratory exercise, while students ask/answer questions posed by the teachers to assess comprehension and participation. The teachers will have the learning objectives written out on the front board for the students to reflect upon throughout the class. After questions, the teachers will post and review the vocabulary from the previous lesson/readings, as well as vocabulary that he anticipates the students having difficulty with during their in class reading.
Review vocabulary by quick-write followed by students reading their definitions.
Fracture/Hydraulic/Carbon Footprint (15 Minutes)

Split into Physics and Earth Science groups.

       B. Instruction/Through
         The teacher will provide a short (20 min.) video covering the concept of the hydrologic cycle. The video should help with student understandings by using visual and auditory communication methods to relay the information. After the video, the teacher will again review vocabulary words that might be more difficult for some students.(25 minutes)
       C. Guided Practice/Through
          1. The teacher will monitor the students while they participate in the laboratory exercise. The teacher will move throughout the classroom to ensure that the students are annotating their observations, and their explanations. (50 minutes)
                D. Closure
            The teacher will have the students write their observation reports independently, then share them with the rest of their group. After all groups have had an opportunity to discuss their observations, the teacher will have each group present their findings to the class. Students will be encouraged to provide additional information to the reports from other groups. The teacher will moderate the discussion of the information being presented. (20 minutes)
       E. Beyond
           The teachers will give a verbal preview of the next class session, and assign the text reading for that evening. (co-teaching complementary method)  Students will be reminded that next class period will cover assigned readings to increase understanding of material.  Time permitting, the teachers will prompt additional discussion of the day’s lesson.(10 Minutes)
(Describe what the students does. Include differentiation activities.)
       A. Anticipatory Set/Into
            Students will enter the room and be seated to listen to the general overview of the day’s lesson. Students will copy down the objectives from the front board, and ask questions about the teacher’s instructions for the class period. The students will review as a group, the vocabulary from the previous day, and the readings. (10 Minutes)                          
       B. Instruction/Through
            2.Students will view video on the hydrologic cycle and the reserves of groundwater. They will also list any words or concepts they are having difficulty understanding. (20 Minutes)        
       C. Guided Practice/Through
            1. Students will be grouped as table groups, and conduct the hydrologic cycle/reservoirs lab. Students will make observations of the diffusing of the colored water through the water table model. They will record the amount of time, and the visual evidence of the water diffusion.  Students will be required to use their notes to explain their findings in an short paragraph after the lab exercise. (50 minutes)
E. Closure
           The students will complete their observational reports, and share their findings with their group. After they have finished, the groups will present their findings to the class.   (20 minutes)

       F. Beyond
           Students will ask any final questions, or expand on concepts that were presented during the period. (10 minutes)
-Text:  Holt Earth Science, Allison, DeGaetano, Pasachoff
-Video (National Geographic: Water)
-Lab Supplies: Fish Tanks/Sand/Food Coloring


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