Lesson Plan-Day 4 (Task 7)

Single Subject Lesson Design

Earth’s Geologic History and Energy Extraction Through Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)
Earth Science 9th & 10th Grade
Length of Lesson: 1- 1hr period,
2nd half of 2nd Semester
4th class in 5 class unit.

3A. STUDENT INFORMATION: English Language Learners

1.) Elena is a 15 year old 10th grader.  She is identified as an ELL with a CELDT level of 4 whose primary language is Spanish.  She comes form a middle class family and has 2 older brothers, one of which also attends RBV, and a younger sister.  Her parents are second generation immigrants and her family speaks a mixture of Spanish and English at home. Her parents are active on the schools PTSA.  Elena does not read or write in Spanish.  Her performance in school is good if not excellent.  Her reading, writing and math skills are all at grade level.  She does, however, excel in Art and Music classes and is a member of the school choir.  She reports that her favorite spare time activities are dancing and singing.  Elena is vivacious and outgoing, prefers to work in small groups as opposed to whole-class or individual activities.  She easily gravitates to a leadership role in small group activities but does have a tendency to take the group off task.

2.) Ibram is 16 years old in the 11th grade.  His CELDT level is 3 and his primary language is Arabic.  His family immigrated fairly recently and he has been in the California school system for 3 years.  He comes from an upper middle class family and is the youngest of three children.  His oldest sibling, a brother, did not emigrate with his family and his older sister attends a local community college.  His family speaks Arabic almost exclusively at home, primarily because, while his father is fluent in English, his mother speaks no English at all.  Ibram enjoys sports, particularly soccer, but does not play on a school team.  He gets very good grades; all A's but one B on his last report.  His parents have high expectations for his schoolwork but offer little concrete support.  Ibram is shy and tends to isolate.  He reports that because of his language and cultural differences he does not feel that he fits in well in school.

3.) Maria is a 14 year old girl in the 9th grade and is identified as an ELL with a CELDT level of 3 and a primary language of Spanish.  Her father is a first generation immigrant and her mother second generation. They speak mostly Spanish at home.  She has one older sibling who also attends RBV.  Her family is middle class to lower middle class.  Her parents own and operate a small convenience/grocery store where Maria works after school and on weekends.  Maria's CELDT score is much higher for reading than for writing and she reads extensively, preferring romantic and fantasy fiction.  She enjoys sports and loves to play soccer but has little time to do so.  Maria if quiet and shy but friendly.  She works well in small groups but seldom takes on a leadership role, even when encouraged to do so.
3B. STUDENT INFORMATION: Students w/ Special Needs

1.) Alex is a 16-year-old boy in the eleventh grade. He had difficulty with the development of his early literacy skills, including the acquisition of sound/symbol relationships and word identification, demonstrated in both his reading and writing. In the second grade, Alex was identified as a student with specific learning disabilities. Since then, Alex has received special education support primarily in a resource room for language arts, while he is included in the general education curriculum. He is able to independently read text at a ninth grade level and continues to struggle with decoding words. Alex also has asthma for which he takes daily medication and occasionally needs to use an inhaler. He is a self-isolating person who does not readily join into whole-class conversations or contribute to group learning situations. His tendency is to sit alone at lunch and to be by himself during transitional time. There is no in-class support for this student.

2.) Ross is a 15 year-old boy in the tenth grade, identified as a student with ADHD in the fourth grade.  He is the only child in an upper middle class family.  Both parents are professional college graduates.  They are members of the PTSA but find little time to participate actively.  Ross is a highly visual learner and his school performance as measured by grades and test scores is uneven.  Ross enjoys sports and plays on the school baseball team.  He also enjoys playing his guitar.  Ross prefers to work in small groups in class but is sometimes disruptive.
     A. Enduring Understanding

The Earth’s energy system is complex and limited. That traditional methods of energy extraction rely heavily on resources that take millions of years to accumulate (fossil fuels), and are becoming much more difficult to acquire. That new forms of energy must be discovered and utilized in efficient ways. There are costs and benefits to each type of energy source.

     B. Essential Questions
                1. Where will we get our energy sources in the future?
               2. What are the major benefits/costs of extracting natural gas through hydraulic fracturing?  

     C. Reason for Instructional Strategies and Student Activities
            Through individual/group interaction, students will be able to see physics involved, and the benefits/costs of our high demand for energy, and the methods in which those resources are obtrained.
California Content Standards Grades Nine through Twelve-Earth Sciences
7b. Students know the global carbon cycle: the different physical and chemical forms of carbon in the atmosphere, oceans, biomass, fossil fuels, and the movement of carbon among these reservoirs.

Writing Strategies & Applications
Write Expository Compositions and Research Reports
(EA) Write expository compositions and reports that convey information from primary and secondary sources and use some technical terms, use appropriate tone and voice for the purpose, audience and subject matter.
(A) Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research reports, for the language arts and other content areas and provide evidence in support of a thesis and related claims.
    Through viewing the video, listening to the lecture and participating in the group debate classroom activity, SWBAT explain where natural gas deposits exist in the United States, and the primary methods for extracting them.


     -Language Objective
     Through their textbook readings, listening to the lecture and watching the video, SWBAT articulate the information retained by creating a summary paragraph illustrating their logical argument for or against hydraulic fracturing.
     A. Diagnostic/Entry Level
       Students will be asked by the teacher what their preconceptions are about the extraction/usage of fossil fuels.  They will be asked to explain how fossil fuels are extracted from the Earth. Based on the students’ input the teacher will assess what level of knowledge the students possess.

     B. Formative-Progress Monitoring
       After the lecture and video, the teacher will observe the students working within their debate groups and listen to the exchange of information.  Additionally, the teacher will ensure that the students observe the protocol of allowing each groiup equal time for presentation of facts/opinions.

     C. Summative
       After the activity, the students will return to their seats and the teacher will have them complete a short paragraph explaining their own chosen view on hydraulic fracturing, using multiple examples/facts that were presented during the debates.

1.)     Content/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Elena/Ibram/Maria: Video should enable simple representation of key concepts through graphic effects. During the short lecture, the teacher will use visuals, and present key vocabulary in primary languages of the students.
2.)     Process/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Elena/Maria: The teacher will pair students to assist them with particular vocabulary and definitions. All students will work in pairs/small groups, however consideration will be made for English Language Learners to be paired with someone who might be able to provide additional explanation if required.
Ibram: Will be paired with a student who will be able to convey information in simple terms. Several students have shown this ability, and Ibram is currently paired with one of those students.
           3.)  Product/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or    Interest
 Elena/Ibram/Maria: Students will be allowed additional time      to complete the summative writing assignment.  If needed, the students can complete the assignment at home and bring it in the next class session.

1.)     Content/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Alex: The teacher will ensure presentations have visual/auditory component to maximize retention. Additional attention will be given to vocabulary during the beginning of class.
Ross: The teacher will incorporate Ross into discussions to keep him focused on the material. 
2.)     Process/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
-Students will be paired with other students that will be able to assist them as required.
Alex: Will be paired with one of the academically stronger students to assist with reading/ formation of coherent ideas. 
Ross: Will be paired with a student and in a location that will provide the least amount of distractions, and allow maximum focus on the tasks.
     3.)  Product/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Alex: will be allowed to take the writing assignment home for additional time, and less distracting atmosphere.
Ross: No differentiation required.

(Describe what the teacher does. Include differentiation strategies.)
       A. Anticipatory Set/Into
        The teachers will provide a general overview of the material to be covered by the readings, video and the debate exercise, while students ask/answer questions posed by the teacher to assess comprehension and participation. This will be accomplished through the complementary method of co-teaching.  The teachers will have the learning objectives written out on the front board for the students to reflect upon throughout the class.  As one teacher talks about the day’s subjects, the other teacher will direct the students’ attention to the list on the board, and add notes as needed. After questions, the teachers will post and review the vocabulary from the previous lesson/readings, as well as vocabulary that he anticipates the students having difficulty with during their in class reading.  The teacher will ask for volunteers to review the vocabulary, and explain how the words relate to the topic. (10 minutes)

       B. Instruction/Through
         The teachers will provide a short (10 min.) video covering the basics of the class material.  They will hand out question sheets that require short responses for the information presented in the video. The video should help with student understandings by using visual and auditory communication methods to relay the information. After the video, the teachers will again review vocabulary words that might be more difficult for some students.(10 minutes)

       C. Guided Practice/Through
          1. The teachers will monitor the students while they participate in the debate exercise. (co-teaching team method)   The teachers will move throughout the classroom to ensure that the students are collecting the required information from each group. (20 minutes)
                D. Closure
            The teachers will have the students independently write a paragraph on their view on the pros/cons of fracking.  The students will be directed to include as much information as they can recall from the day’s activities.  The teachers will provide a rubric for this activity. They will circulate throughout the room to provide guidance and assistance where needed. (20 minutes)
       E. Beyond
           The teachers will give a verbal preview of the next class session, and assign the text reading for that evening. (co-teaching complementary method)  Students will be reminded that next class period will cover assigned readings to increase understanding of material.  Time permitting, the teachers will prompt additional discussion of the day’s lesson.(10 Minutes)
(Describe what the students does. Include differentiation activities.)
       A. Anticipatory Set/Into
            Students will enter the room and be seated to listen to the general overview of the day’s lesson. Students will copy down the objectives from the front board, and ask questions about the teacher’s instructions for the class period. The students will review as a group, the vocabulary from the previous day, and the readings. (10 Minutes)                          
       B. Instruction/Through
            2.Students will view video on the processes involved in fossil fuel extraction, and take notes by answering the prompts on the question sheets provided. They will also list any vocabulary words they are having difficulty understanding. (10 Minutes)        
       C. Guided Practice/Through
            1. Students will form small groups and choose sides of pro/con hydraulic fracturing. The groups will debate their designated point of view (pro/con) using evidence previously shown throughout the unit. The groups will continue to discuss the benefits and costs of fracking and other forms of energy. Students will take notes, in preparation for the follow-on writing assignment. (20 minutes)
E. Closure
           The students will write a short paragraph on the benefits and costs of hydraulic fracturing and energy production. They will be directed to include all of the information they can remember from the debate activity, and to use proper grammar and punctuation for their assignments. They will be directed to include five facts and explain why they are including those particular facts in their argument.  (20 minutes)

       F. Beyond
           Students will ask any final questions, or expand on concepts that were presented during the period.  Additionally, students will ensure that they understand the homework reading requirements for the next class period. (10 minutes)
-Text:  Holt Earth Science, Allison, DeGaetano, Pasachoff
-Video (How the Earth Was Made)
-Rubric for writing exercise

Rubric for Hydraulic Fracturing Paragraph
Number of distinct facts mentioned
5 pts
Student provides 2 defendable (able to site the reference) facts
Student provides 4 defendable (able to site the reference) facts
Student provides 5 or more defendable (able to site the reference) facts
2 pts
Weak sentence structure with no solid identification of topic
Identifies planet, and uses full sentences to present information with some grammatical errors
Uses whole complex sentences with very few (1-2) grammatical errors.

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