Lesson Plan - Day 2 Physics component (Task 7)

Single Subject Lesson Design - Box Format

Laboratory Inquiry – Pascal’s Principle
Physics, Grade 9-12

3A. STUDENT INFORMATION: English Language Learners

Elena is a 15 year old 10th grader.  She is identified as an ELL with a CELDT level of 4 whose primary language is Spanish.  She comes form a middle class family and has 2 older brothers, one of which also attends RBV, and a younger sister.  Her parents are second generation immigrants and her family speaks a mixture of Spanish and English at home. Her parents are active on the schools PTSA.  Elena does not read or write in Spanish.  Her performance in school is good if not excellent.  Her reading, writing and math skills are all at grade level.  She does, however, excel in Art and Music classes and is a member of the school choir.  She reports that her favorite spare time activities are dancing and singing.  Elena is vivacious and outgoing, prefers to work in small groups as opposed to whole-class or individual activities.  She easily gravitates to a leadership role in small group activities but does have a tendency to take the group off task.
Ibram is 16 years old in the 11th grade.  His CELDT level is 3 and his primary language is Arabic.  His family immigrated fairly recently and he has been in the California school system for 3 years.  He comes from an upper middle class family and is the youngest of three children.  His oldest sibling, a brother, did not emigrate with his family and his older sister attends a local community college.  His family speaks Arabic almost exclusively at home, primarily because, while his father is fluent in English, his mother speaks no English at all.  Ibram enjoys sports, particularly soccer, but does not play on a school team.  He gets very good grades; all A's but one B on his last report.  His parents have high expectations for his schoolwork but offer little concrete support.  Ibram is shy and tends to isolate.  He reports that because of his language and cultural differences he does not feel that he fits in well in school.
Maria is a 14 year old girl in the 9th grade and is identified as an ELL with a CELDT level of 3 and a primary language of Spanish.  Her father is a first generation immigrant and her mother second generation. They speak mostly Spanish at home.  She has one older sibling who also attends RBV.  Her family is middle class to lower middle class.  Her parents own and operate a small convenience/grocery store where Maria works after school and on weekends.  Maria's CELDT score is much higher for reading than for writing and she reads extensively, preferring romantic and fantasy fiction.  She enjoys sports and loves to play soccer but has little time to do so.  Maria if quiet and shy but friendly.  She works well in small groups but seldom takes on a leadership role, even when encouraged to do so.

3B. STUDENT INFORMATION: Students w/ Special Needs
        Alex is a 16-year-old boy in the eleventh grade. He had difficulty with the development of his early literacy skills, including the acquisition of sound/symbol relationships and word identification, demonstrated in both his reading and writing. In the second grade, Alex was identified as a student with specific learning disabilities. Since then, Alex has received special education support primarily in a resource room for language arts, while he is included in the general education curriculum. He is able to independently read text at a ninth grade level and continues to struggle with decoding words. Alex also has asthma for which he takes daily medication and occasionally needs to use an inhaler. He is a self-isolating person who does not readily join into whole-class conversations or contribute to group learning situations. His tendency is to sit alone at lunch and to be by himself during transitional time. There is no in-class support for this student.
Ross is a 15 year old boy in the tenth grade, identified as a student with ADHD in the fourth grade.  He is the only child in an upper middle class family.  Both parents are professional college graduates.  They are members of the PTSA but find little time to participate actively.  Ross is a highly visual learner and his school performance as measured by grades and test scores is uneven.  Ross enjoys sports and plays on the school baseball team.  He also enjoys playing his guitar.  Ross prefers to work in small groups in class but is sometimes disruptive.

     A. Enduring Understanding
Pascal's Principle:  Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminshed to every part of the fluid as well as to the walls of the container.

     B. Essential Questions
How are forces transferred through a fluid?  When you apply force to one part of a fluid, how can you tell what forces will exist in other parts of the fluid?

     C. Reason for Instructional Strategies and Student Activities
The initial discrepant event demonstration is intended to introduce the essential question while the laboratory exercise gives student an opportunity to discover the answer to the question on the basis of their own inquiry.

Physics Standard #3g.  Students know how to solve problems involving heat flow, work, and efficiency in a heat engine and know that all real engines lose some heat to their surroundings

Grade 9-12 Writing Strategies Cluster 2, I:  Narrate a sequence of events and communicate their significance to the audience.
A:  Structure ideas and arguments in a given context by giving supporting and relevant examples
     A. Cognitive
After completing an inquiry investigation students will be able to define the relationships between force, pressure and work.

     B. Affective
Students will work in groups of 4 to investigate the relationships between force and pressure.
Students will share data via internet.

     C. Psychomotor
Students will perform laboratory operations.

     D. Language Development
After completing a laboratory investigation students will write a detailed description of the results of that investigation with emphasis on the errors and uncertainties inherent in the measurement techniques
     A. Diagnostic/Entry Level
Formal diagnostic assessment in the form of a quick-write.  Once the student s have written their definitions of “pressure”  three are chosen and read aloud without identifying the authors.  Ask for a show of hands to vote for the best one.

     B. Formative-Progress Monitoring
Assessment by walking around – during lab work check for understanding.

     C. Summative
Lab report with emphasis on relationship between frictional force and force associated with pressure – how one depends on area of plunger and other does not.
Since the lesson is primarily focused on group work and written response, differentiation for ELL students will be primarily concerned with group placement and written product
1.)  Content/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Each of the ELL students is given opportunity to do the anticipatory reading in teachers presence and ask questions before and after school.  Check individually for comprehension during walkaround.

2.)  Process/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Place Elena in a group with a strong on-task leader to maintain focus.  When she is found to be lagging in content mastery encourage her to consult with other students.
Place Ibram in a highly inclusive group and encourage him to share content mastery with other group members or other students.  It may be valuable to place him in the same group as Elena, or another highly social student who can turn to him for help with content mastery.
Maria, because of her youth, may struggle with the content of this lesson.  Place her in a group with a strong and sympathetic mentor who can be expected to have good mastery of the content and be able to communicate it to her.

3.)  Product/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or
In all three cases emphasis is placed on graphical presentation for assessment.  Give detailed feedback and encouragement on written product. For Maria, allowance to be made for grammar and usage and for lack of time for homework.


1.)    Content/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
The anticipatory reading will be supplemented with a link to a video defining pressure (http://youtu.be/HH5ozisF_fg) and a second link discussing Pascal’s Principle will be available at the end of the class (http://youtu.be/YlmRa-9zDF8).  Available to all students, Alex will be encouraged to use it as a supplement to his reading and Ross because it will appeal to him as a visual learner.

2.)    Process/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Since very little written instruction is provide for this exercise the social interaction within the small groups is very important so placing Ross and Alex in appropriate groups will be important.
Place Alex in a highly socially accepting group with a strong group leader and at least one member who can be expected to master the content relatively quickly.  Encourage Alex to seek assistance with any difficulty from the rest of his group
Place Ross in a group with at least one student who does not easily get off task.  When checking in with this group, encourage Ross to take detailed notes on the group’s work so as to help him maintain focus.

3.)    Product/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest
Encourage both Alex and Ross to emphasize graphical analysis and sketches to supplement the written work on their laboratory reports
(Describe what the teacher does. Include differentiation strategies.)
A.     Anticipatory Set/Into
NOTE:  This lesson plan is to be used on day 2 of an interdisciplinary students but is only to be used for the Physics students in the group.  The Anticipatory set will be co-taught by the Physics and Earth Science teachers using a complementary model, while for the rest of the lesson the class will split into Physics and Earth Science groups.

Review vocabulary by quick-write followed by students reading their definitions.
Carbon Footprint
Collect homework – ask for volunteers to summarize their papers.  Invite comment on summaries. 

Split into Physics and Earth Science groups.

Cartesian Diver discrepant event.  Assemble students around teacher.  Display the apparatus, point out the diver floating inside the apparatus.  Ask how to make the diver sink – receive answers, comments.  Then catch their attention and squeeze bottle.  Magic.  Ask what happened.  Repeat.  The force of my squeezing the outside of the bottle is transferred to the diver inside the bottle. 
Quick-write definition of pressure.  Choose 3 papers to read out.  Have students vote via show of hands for the best definition

B.     Instruction/Through
Quick-write definition of pressure.  Choose 3 papers to read out.  Have students vote via show of hands for the best definition
Introduction to the lab.  Display a pair of syringes with tube.  Make the following points.
You push on one plunger, the force is transferred through the fluid and the other plunger moves.
“If I push on the one plunger with say 10 N of force, how much force would I feel at the other plunger?” (allow some discussion)
“Your job today is to measure that, and try to discover the relationship – try to write the equation that describes the relationship between these two.”
Point out what equipment is there. 
Point out that the 2 syringes are different diameters – so they hold different amounts of water – the smaller plunger will move a greater distance that the smaller one.  Remind them how to calculate the volume as length times cross-sectional area – pi*r^2*l
Point out the need to account for friction:  “As you get started, remember there is friction in these plungers.  There’s some amount of force that you have to apply before the plunger will start to move.  Make sure you figure out a way to account for it.”
Remind them that they are going to share data
(NOTE:  It is expected that by this time, students have had the experience of sharing data with google docs.  If they have not they will need in introduction and a review of expectations.)
C.     Guided/Independent Practice/Through
Release them to work on the lab.  Circulate. Encourage groups that are taking an approach which will yield results.  Give hints to groups that are not.  Groups that seem hopelessly lost, encourage them to consult with groups that are progressing.
20 minutes before end of class start making sure everyone is uploading their data
D.     Closure
Brief reminder of the need for a clear graph and conclusions.  Particular emphasis on the uncertainties around the presence of friction and the need for a clear explanation of how they are dealt with.
E.     Beyond
Co-teaching model:  Complementary
Next class we’ll be applying the principles we developed today to the hydraulic fracturing and be able to see exactly how and why that process works.
Give homework assignment

(Describe what the students does. Include differentiation activities.)
A.     Anticipatory Set/Into
Homework completed
Watch and comment on discrepant event.
B.     Instruction/Through
Listen, take notes
C.     Guided/Independent Practice/Through
Work in small groups
Generate and test hypotheses – possible more than one.
Assemble experimental apparatus & perform tests
Access internet
D.     Closure
Listen, ask questions as needed
E.     Beyond
Lab report writing.
(Attach any materials needed to implement the lesson, such as a power point presentation, graphic organizer, reading…)

Lab Equipment:

Syringes, polyurethane tubing, ring stands, masses and balances.
Teachers computer or classroom laptops for uploading data.

Does not meet
Lab is not turned in
Lab is turned in late (less than 1 week) or partially complete
Lab is complete and on time
Data Sharing
Data is not shared
Shared data is uploaded after class is over
Shared data is uploaded during class
Does not follow standard Introduction/Analysis/Conclusion form
Standard form is followed.  Analysis and/or conclusion contain conceptual or systematic errors
Standard form is followed.  Conclusions are clear and accurate.
No graphics are included
Graphics are included, poorly labeled or don’t make sense
Graphics are clear and support conclusions
Multiple errors exist, sentences are incomplete
Discussion is in complete sentences with few errors
Discussion is in complete sentences with no errors. 

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